Image & Sound
images and sounds recorded during the fieldwork
Contextualization of Church MusicThe Universitas Kristen Indonesia Maluku (UKIM) is a theological university in Ambon where theologians are developing Moluccan contextual theology. Contextual theology is theology based on the living cultural context. Theologian and musician Christian Izaac Tamaela taught a class on the contextualization of church music. He was an expert on the use of traditional Moluccan music in worship in the Moluccan Protestant church.
Chris Izaac Tamaela teachingThe klong is a bamboo tube zither with one string. It is a traditional Moluccan instrument
MalukuMaluku means the Moluccas. During the research I visited many beautiful places on different Moluccan islands.
Baileo, SaparuaSymbolizing the fundamental place of adat, the baileo is the house where the village leaders assemble. Adat is the customary usage (i.e. religion, manners, cultural traditions, customs, social organization and rights) which has been handed down by the ancestors and which is passed on from generation to generation.
GPM Churches and MusicThe Gereja Protestan Maluku (GPM) is the Moluccan Protestant church in which traditional church music is implemented. These photos and videos show the exteriors and interiors of several GPM churches, and the music and singing during Sunday service.
Church in Noloth, SaparuaThis is one of the oldest Protestant churches on the Moluccas, built by the Dutch in the year 1860.
Interior of the church in Tuni, AmbonGPM churches approximately have the same set up for the interior, although pulpits can be quite creative!
View over the church in Soya from the balcony of the suling playersThe church in Soya is one of the few churches that still has a large suling ensemble that accompanies congregational singing each week. The suling is a horizontal bamboo flute, a traditional church instrument that was introduced by the missionary Josef Kam.
Seats for the village king in the church in Booi, SaparuaSome older churches have separate seats for the village king, the raja.
Sector Christmas service in the Rehoboth church, AmbonThis service is accompanied by ethnic instruments in combination with modern and brass instruments.
Congregational singing in the Maranatha church, AmbonThe Maranatha church is the central church in Ambon, located next to the synod. Congregational singing is accompanied by band music.
Ethnic service in Rohua Baru, SeramThe ethnic service is a recent contextual development which means that worship is based on Moluccan ethnicity.
Congregational singing in the Rehoboth church, AmbonThis is the typical keyboard synthesizer sound of musical accompaniment in GPM churches.
FieldworkFieldwork is fun! As an anthropologist you participate in the everyday lives of the people you study, trying to understand their worldview from their own point of view. Fieldwork is about relationships, about experience, and about ‘being there’. These pictures show several fieldwork settings during my time in the Moluccas.
Traditional Moluccan MusicTraditional Moluccan music is a result of centuries of inter-cultural contact, including modern influences. Chris Tamaela even developed new traditional instruments. The music is drawn upon for the development of traditional church music. Moluccan music is part of an ensemble of dance, clothes and language.
Tari lensoTari lenso is performed by women, to welcome guests and accompanied by the tifa and totobuang. Lenso refers to the white handkerchiefs the women have tied around one finger of each hand.
Maluku Bambu OrchestraThis the orchestra of Rence Alfons, consisting of young people who play the suling. They play all kinds of music on this traditional instrument. The suling is a horizontal bamboo flute that was introduced by the missionary Josef Kam to accompany congregational singing in church.
Cakalele danceOriginally the cakalele is a war dance, performed in preparation of headhunting or war. Today, the cakalele is used in several adat ceremonies and most often to welcome and protect guests, also in public and political contexts.
Tifa totobuang group with rebanaThis is a tifa totobuang group in the village Amahusu, led by musician Jonas Silooy. They play the famous song ‘lagu totobuang’, together with the rebana. The rebana is a frame drum, mostly played by Muslims.